Orthopedic Physical Examination Special Tests

There are many physical tests,  or ‘special tests’,  that are used by clinicians in physical therapy, and orthopedics / orthopaedics in general, during a physical examination. These tests are used to rule in or out specific musculoskeletal problems. They help in the differential diagnosis of orthopedic conditions and injuries.

There are many such clinical orthopedic tests that target the various regions of the body and many tissue types including connective tissue, muscles, nerves, bones (a specialized connective tissue), vascular structures, etc.

Special tests by body region (this list is not complete):

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